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DERMAIOS is the Skin Cancer Prevention & Awareness Month!

Come and examine your skin for free for any lesions or suspicious signs, at the two events organized by EDAE in Athens and Thessaloniki, this Friday, May 5, 2023!
Skin cancer is a serious disease caused by misuse of the sun and ultraviolet rays. It is important to take care of our skin and have regular skin examinations to detect any changes or intolerances in time.

Your skin is the largest organ in your body and it is truly precious. Today there are many, modern and minimally invasive body treatments. For their benefits, and for anything concerning your skin, trust your dermatologist.

It is very important to be aware of skin cancer as it is a serious disease that can affect our health. Skin cancer develops when skin cells mutate and start to reproduce dangerously.
The main risk factors for skin cancer are sun exposure, use of carbonated abrasives and genetic predisposition. However, sun exposure is the most important risk factor and can cause both apple and epidermal cancer.
For this reason, it is important to learn how to protect our skin from the sun and to examine our skin regularly to detect any changes or intolerance in time. In addition, it is important to seek professional help if we notice any change in our skin to ensure good health.
Some steps we can take to protect our skin are:
  1. Wear sunscreen when in the sun and avoid dangerous times of the day (from 10am to 4pm).
  2. Wear a hat and sunglasses to protect your face and eyes from the sun.
  3. Avoid sunburn, as this increases the risk of skin cancer.
  4. Examine your skin regularly for any changes, such as an appendage or change in skin colour.
In addition, it is important to be informed about skin cancer and to undergo periodic screening by a dermatologist.
What are the most common types of skin cancer and what are their causes?
The most common types of skin cancer are mainly caused by frequent and repeated exposure to the sun. However, we are not referring to melanoma, which is a separate category. Skin cancers, when diagnosed early, are easily treatable.
The most prevalent is basal cell carcinoma, which accounts for 90% of skin cancer cases. It is favoured by sunburn in adulthood and affects 20% of people over 50 years of age. It does not metastasise.
Squamous cell carcinoma or squamous cell skin cancer accounts for 10% of cases and carries greater risks. In some areas, such as the ear or lips, it can lead to metastases.
All people are likely to be affected, but skin cancers are more common in people with fair skin who get a lot of sun exposure.
Skin cancers are rarely fatal. They grow slowly. Early diagnosis facilitates treatment and increases the chances of a complete cure. Therefore, if you discover a suspicious sign, it is necessary to immediately consult a specialist doctor. In case of late diagnosis, given their frequent appearance on the face, they can cause serious aesthetic problems.
Prevention of skin cancer:
The fact that today skin cancer is almost always curable, when diagnosed and treated early, makes the following sun avoidance tips and habits part of your daily care and health protection.
-Attempt to stay in the shade, especially between 10 a.m. and 4 p.m.
-Avoid burns.
-Avoid sunbathing and artificial tanning (solarium) with U.V. radiation.
-When you are exposed to the sun, cover your body with loose clothing, a wide-brimmed hat and sunglasses, which protect you from radiation.
-Use daily, sunscreen with a broad spectrum SPF 15 or higher.
-For prolonged outdoor activities, use a waterproof, broad-spectrum (UVA/UVB) sunscreen with a protection index of 30 and above.
-Apply sunscreen, equal to 2 tablespoons of sunscreen to your entire body, 30 minutes before going outdoors. Repeat the application, with a frequency of every 2 hours, either after swimming or after excessive sweating.
-Do not expose newborns to the sun. After the age of 6 months babies should wear sunscreen.
-Examine your skin from head to toe, regularly.
-Visit your doctor every year for a professional examination of your skin - mapping.

EDAE is the leading scientific society (non-profit) of the Greek dermatologists.
SOURCE: https://www.edae.gr/home/



The ageing of the population is constantly increasing the need for long-term care as it leads to an increase in the number of people with disabilities and dementia

The need for long-term care for Europe's ageing population is increasing due to the rise in disabilities and dementia cases.

The growing population of older people in Europe is expected to lead to an increase in demand for long-term care and health services. This is likely to affect people's access to these services, as well as the quality of care they receive. While demand is expected to increase in the future, stakeholders are increasingly interested in finding innovative solutions to ensure the sustainability of long-term care.
Long-term care in Europe is struggling to keep up with the growing demand for an ageing population which is leading to an increase in disabilities and cases of dementia. This increase has resulted in an increase in the number of disabilities and cases of dementia requiring long-term care. According to World Health Organisation data, approximately 15% of the world's population over 60 years of age suffers from some form of dementia.
Developing effective strategies to manage the increase in this type of disease and disability is critical to improving the quality of life of people with these diseases and their carers.
The increase in disability and dementia cases may make this situation even worse. It is necessary to make adjustments and implement new approaches to manage the problem. Effective strategies are needed to manage this situation and to ensure that the human resources and infrastructure needed to provide care will be available in the future.
Many of these solutions include efforts to prevent or delay the formal dependency of older people on long-term care, either by improving health and well-being or by providing informal carers.

In the introductory article of this issue's Observer section, Marczak and colleagues explore the impact of a wide range of interventions that have been implemented to help address social isolation and loneliness among older people, two issues of growing concern that have been linked to poorer health and well-being.
The research by Marczak and colleagues is an important effort to understand how interventions can help older people cope with social isolation and loneliness, two problems that have a significant impact on their health and well-being. This research highlights the importance of interventions to improve older people's quality of life and suggests a range of practical and effective strategies for implementing these interventions. This research is important for health professionals and care providers working with older people and can be used to improve their practice.
Personalisation or person-centred approach refers to the provision of care that takes into account the individual needs and preferences of the person receiving care, rather than treating them as part of a system. The person-centred approach recognises that each person is unique and requires different needs and priorities in their care. This can improve outcomes for people receiving care, as tailoring care to their individual needs can lead to more effective and efficient interventions.
The article by Frisina Doetter and colleagues points out that although the person-centred approach is promising, the findings from studies investigating its effectiveness are mixed. Therefore, policymakers should consider additional solutions, such as digital health, that can help with management.
Individualised or person-centred approaches to improving outcomes for people with long-term care needs are evaluated in the following article by Frisina Doetter and colleagues. The authors suggest that mixed findings on the effectiveness of personalisation place the onus on policy makers to develop additional solutions, which are likely to include digital health.
In two articles, they focus on studying policies and strategies to ensure that the future supply of care workers can meet demand. Le Bihan and colleagues begin by mapping the different types of policy measures that have been implemented across Europe to support informal carers to provide care for as long as they wish, highlighting the many challenges in balancing the needs of carers with those of dependents.
Le Bihan and his team's research focuses on analysing the policy measures in place in Europe to support informal carers, i.e. care provided by non-professional carers to dependent people. Research shows that informal care is essential to meet the needs of dependent people, but often causes stress and insecurity for carers.
The researchers analyse the various measures that have been implemented in different European countries to support informal carers. These measures include the provision of education and training for carers, financial support, professional support and various other services and programmes. At the same time, the researchers highlight the challenges related to informal care and carers.
Sowa-Kofta and her co-authors explore the issue of the migrant workforce in the long-term care sector and highlight the importance of transnational migration in this sector. However, they point out that social policies specifically regulating this type of service provision are rarely adopted, and this has serious consequences for migrants and their families who depend on these services.
 An article looking at Alzheimer's disease, which is the most common form of dementia. This research addresses the issue of long-term care and Alzheimer's disease. It is reported that the demand for long-term care is increasing in Europe due to the increase in the ageing population and the increase in disabilities and cases of dementia. It points out that early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease is crucial for access to care and support. In addition, the implementation of programmes with individualised or person-centred approaches to improve outcomes for people with long-term care needs and the reasons for late or under-diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease are being studied. Boada et al. interweave the reasons for delayed or underdiagnosis of Alzheimer's disease and highlight how early diagnosis is a critical step in accessing care and support. They then consider innovative ways to address this challenge.
In the article on the Netherlands, De Jong and Brabers analyse the change of insurance provider in the context of social security. They present the rate of change over time and explain the reasons why people change insurance provider and how the change affects the quality and access to health care in the country.
Second, in Germany, Busse and Blümel analyse the role of prices and expenditure on the quality and efficiency of the German health care system, and present suggestions for improvements.
Third, the next country covered is Spain, where Hernandez-Quevedo and her co-authors present the challenges facing the Spanish health care system, particularly in the area of financing and organization of care.
How France is addressing the challenges of its health system. In particular, they mention the need to improve primary care, address the problem of a shortage of doctors in certain regions of the country, the need to modernise and digitalise the health system and ensure the sustainability of the health system through cost management and the development of prevention. In addition, they refer to the ongoing debate in France on the elimination of pharmaceutical sales on the Internet and the need for changes in the payment system for pharmaceutical purchases.
In Switzerland, Sottas and his colleagues examine how the shortage of general practitioners has led to the implementation of the role of advanced practice nurses in primary care. They present some pilot projects currently underway and assess the benefits and challenges observed so far.
In Finland, where discussions are taking place on centralisation in the organisation of health systems. Tynkkynen et al. detail the slow process of merging municipalities in Finland since the early 2000s. They report that municipality mergers were aimed at improving the efficiency and effectiveness of local government, and reducing costs for taxpayers. However, mergers have not been easy due to the complexity of the structures and interests of the municipalities, as well as resistance from residents.
Mergers across Europe, which involve the merging of administrative divisions, are often met with opposition from local populations, because they often mean a loss of local autonomy and offer fewer opportunities to participate in policy-making.
In their article, Richardson and Sheiman present the new national plan to strengthen primary care in the Russian Federation. They analyze the need to improve access to primary health care in Russia and explain the steps to be taken to achieve this goal. They provide data on the state of primary care in Russia and analyse the constraints to its development in that country. In addition, they explain the proposed changes to Russia's health care system and the ways in which primary care provision in the country can be improved.

Prevention of depression by increasing physical activity & exercise

Exercise can help prevent depression even for those at high risk

Depression is a serious mental disorder that affects millions of people worldwide. Because depression has such a big impact on people's lives, it is important to have effective strategies for dealing with it.
These strategies may include the use of medication and/or psychology and psychotherapy counselling. However, there are other strategies that can help to treat depression, such as physical activity and diet.
Exercise, in particular, has been shown to help improve the psychological state of people suffering from depression. Physical activity can help increase confidence, energy and stamina, and can also improve mood and reduce the intensity of depression symptoms.
Depression is a condition that affects not only the mind but also the body. Research has shown that physical activity can have positive effects on coping with depression. Listed below are some ways in which physical activity can help in dealing with depression:
  1. Improving mood: Physical activity helps increase levels of serotonin, which is a substance associated with improved mood.
  2. Reduction of stress: Exercise can help reduce stress and anxiety, two emotions often associated with depression.
  3. Improving sleep: Physical activity can improve the quality of sleep, which can affect the state of depression.
  4. Increase self-confidence: there has been a lot of research showing that physical activity can improve self-esteem and reduce depression. There are several ways in which exercise can help increase self-confidence, including:
  5. Increase in physical strength and energy: Exercise can help increase physical strength and energy, as well as improve endurance. This can lead to greater self-confidence and a positive self-perception.
  6. Improving the appearance: Exercise can improve a person's body appearance and body image. This can improve self-esteem, increase self-confidence and improve the psychology of the individual.
Increasing physical activity & exercise could help prevent depression, even if there is a genetic risk factor, new research shows.
The study analysed data from nearly 8,000 people and showed that people with a genetic predisposition to depression were more likely to be diagnosed with the condition in the next two years. However, people who were more active at the start of the study were less likely to be diagnosed with depression, even if they had an inherited risk. This shows that higher levels of physical activity can help protect against depression, even if there is a high genetic risk.
The study analysed data from nearly 8,000 people and found that those with a genetic predisposition are more likely to be diagnosed with depression in the next two years, but this is less likely for people who exercise more often. Both high-intensity exercise and lower-intensity activities are associated with a reduced risk of depression. Specifically, adding four hours of exercise per week can reduce the risk of a new episode of depression by 17%, according to the study published in the journal Depression and Anxiety.
The findings of this study are very encouraging as they show that physical activity can counteract the risk of recurrence of depression in people who are genetically vulnerable. The study shows that adding an extra 35 minutes of physical activity each day can reduce the risk by 17%, so physical activity can have a very positive effect on people's mental health. It is important to note that the study does not prove a cause and effect relationship between physical activity and depression, but it does suggest a correlation between the two.

"Depression is a leading cause of disability worldwide."

"Our findings strongly suggest that when it comes to depression, genes are not the patient's destiny and that physical activity has the potential to counteract the additional risk of future episodes in genetically vulnerable individuals," said lead author Karmel Choi, a clinical associate of psychiatry at Massachusetts General Hospital and the T.H. Chan at Harvard in Boston.
"On average, about 35 extra minutes of physical activity each day can help people reduce their risk and protect against future episodes of depression," Choi said in a hospital press release.
"The magnitude of depression worldwide underscores the need for effective strategies that can affect as many people as possible," Choi said. Mental health providers and primary care professionals can use the findings to advise patients that "here's something important they can do to reduce their risk even if they have a family history of depression," he suggested.
More information
The US National Institute of Mental Health has more on the depression.
SOURCE: Massachusetts General Hospital, press release, November 5, 2019 Copyright © 2019 HealthDay. All rights reserved.

Neuroplasticity and cognitive flexibility are essential for adapting to a changing world

Neuroplasticity and cognitive flexibility are essential for adapting to a changing world

New research shows how the brain learns new rules

The article refers to the importance of flexibility and adaptability in a changing world. It states that this skill is necessary to deal with new situations, such as adapting to new working environments or using new technologies.

Furthermore, the article underlines that this skill is practiced daily and that adaptability can be essential for success and growth in professional and personal life.

A team of neuroscientists has discovered a special class of neurons in the prefrontal cortex that enable flexible behaviour and, when dysfunctional, may contribute to conditions such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. These long-range inhibitory connections synchronise gamma oscillations in the left and right prefrontal cortex, allowing the brain to change its behaviour at the right time.
This research could lead to new treatments for psychiatric conditions by targeting these long-term inhibitory connections.
Η neuroplasticity (neuroplasticity) refers to the brain's ability to adapt and change its structure and function based on experiences and changes in the environment. It is an important ability that allows the brain to adapt to different situations, such as injury, changes in the environment and functional demands.
Neuroplasticity is related to the creation and storage of new synapses between neurons, as well as the creation of new neurons (neurogenesis) in certain areas of the brain. Neuroplasticity is also important for the recovery of function after brain injury, as well as for learning new skills and knowledge.
Research in the field of neuroplasticity has demonstrated its importance in understanding neurological and psychiatric disorders and in developing new therapeutics.
The article discusses the importance of cognitive flexibility and neuroplasticity in adapting to a changing world. It analyses brain function and its ability to adapt and remodel, and the relationship between cognitive flexibility and neuroplasticity.
Neuroplasticity and cognitive flexibility are closely related, as neuroplasticity allows the brain to create new neural pathways and synapses, cognitive flexibility, as a neurological mechanism of creative adaptation, allows the brain to adapt to new experiences and situations, to process information, to solve problems in different ways and adapt to changes, to learn new skills and to make decisions based on them.
Neuroplasticity and cognitive flexibility are important for survival in a changing world. The ability to adapt to new situations and learn new skills is essential to meet the challenges that arise at every stage of life.
Cognitive flexibility refers to the ability to adapt one's cognitive processes and strategies to cope with new situations and solve problems. In a changing world, cognitive flexibility is essential for navigating change and meeting challenges that may arise.
According to the research literature, cognitive flexibility is related to various abilities, such as problem solving, flexible thinking, innovation and creativity. These abilities are important for growth and success in professional and personal life.
In addition, cognitive flexibility can help in dealing with stress and anxiety, as it allows people to face challenges with greater confidence and effectiveness.
In everyday life, our brain adapts to new situations using the prefrontal cortex. To make these adaptations, your brain changes its activity patterns within a structure called prefrontal cortex (prefrontal cortex) - an area of the brain critical for cognitive functions such as attention, planning and decision-making.
The prefrontal cortex of the brain is involved in executive functions such as self-control and decision-making.
But which specific circuits "tell" the prefrontal cortex to update its activity patterns in order to change behaviour is unknown.


A team of neuroscientists study the mechanisms and processes by which the brain processes information and what happens when this function is impaired. In our recently published research, we discovered a special class of neurons (special class of neurons) in the prefrontal cortex that can enable flexible behaviour and, when dysfunctional, can lead to conditions such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

Inhibitory neurons and learning new rules

The inhibitory neurons (inhibitory neurons) reduce the activity of other neurons in the brain. Researchers have traditionally assumed that they send their electrical and chemical outputs only to nearby neurons. However, we found a specific class of inhibitory neurons in the prefrontal cortex that communicate over long distances with neurons in the opposite hemisphere of the brain.
We wondered whether these long-range inhibitory connections are involved in coordinating changes in activity patterns along the left and right prefrontal cortex. In doing so, they may provide the critical signals that help you change your behavior at the right time.

Endoneurons connect other neurons together.  NICHD/McBain Lab via Flickr, CC BY-NC-ND

To test the function of these long-range inhibitory connections, we observed mice performing a task that required them to learn a rule to receive a reward and then adapt to a new rule to continue receiving the reward. In this task, the mice dug into bowls to find hidden food. Initially, the smell of garlic or the presence of sand in a bowl may indicate the location of the hidden food. The specific cue associated with the reward would later change, forcing the mice to learn a new rule.
We found that the silencing of long-range inhibitory connections between the left and right prefrontal cortex caused the mice to get stuck (caused the mice to get stuck) or stick to one rule and it prevented them from learning new ones. They couldn't change gears and learned that the old cue no longer made sense and the new cue meant food.

Brain waves and flexible behaviour

We also made surprising discoveries about how these long-range inhibitory connections create behavioural flexibility. Specifically, they synchronize a set of "brain waves" called gamma oscillations (gamma oscillations) in the two hemispheres. Gamma oscillations are rhythmic fluctuations in brain activity that occur about 40 times per second. These fluctuations can be detected during many cognitive functions, such as when performing a task that requires you to retain information in your memory or making different movements based on what you see on a computer screen.
Although scientists have observed the presence of gamma oscillations for many decades, their function has been controversial. Many researchers believe that the timing of these rhythmic fluctuations in different regions of the brain serves no useful purpose. Others have hypothesized that synchronization in different regions of the brain enhances communication between these regions.
Fluctuations in neural activity are manifested as brain waves or nerve oscillations.


What Do Different Brainwaves Mean? - YouTube

We found a completely different possible role for gamma timing. When long-range inhibitory connections synchronize gamma oscillations in left and right prefrontal cortex, it also appears to communicate with each other (gate communication between them).
When mice learn to ignore a previously established rule that no longer leads to a reward, these connections synchronize gamma oscillations and appear to stop one hemisphere from maintaining unnecessary patterns of activity in the other.
In other words, long-range inhibitory connections seem to stop input from one hemisphere from "blocking" the other when trying to learn something new.
For example, the left prefrontal cortex can "remind" the right prefrontal cortex of your usual route to work. But when long-range inhibitory connections synchronize these two regions, they also seem to shut down these reminders and allow new patterns of brain activity corresponding to your new commute.
Finally, these long-range inhibitory connections also trigger long-lasting effects (trigger long-lasting-effects). Disrupting these connections only once made the mice have trouble learning new rules several days later. In contrast, rhythmic stimulation of these connections to artificially synchronize gamma oscillations can reverse these deficits and restore normal learning.

Cognitive flexibility and schizophrenia

Long-range inhibitory connections play an important role in cognitive flexibility. The inability to appropriately update previously learned rules is a hallmark form of cognitive impairment in psychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
Research has also seen deficiencies i gamma synchronization (deficiencies i gamma synchronization) and abnormalities in a class of prefrontal inhibitory neurons, which includes those we studied, in people with schizophrenia. In this context, our study shows that treatments targeting these long-range inhibitory connections can help improve cognitive function in people with schizophrenia by synchronizing gamma oscillations.
Many details of how these connections affect brain circuits remain unknown. For example, we don't know exactly which cells within the prefrontal cortex receive inputs from these long-range inhibitory connections and change their activity patterns to learn new rules. We also don't know if there are specific molecular pathways that produce the long-term changes in neural activity.
The answer to these questions could reveal how the brain flexibly switches between retaining and updating old information and potentially lead to new treatments for schizophrenia and other psychiatric conditions.


About this neuroscience research news

Authored by Vikaas Sohal and Kathleen Cho: The Conversation

Source : Cognitive Flexibility: How the Brain Learns New Rules to Navigate the Changing World - Neuroscience News


Protect Your Heart by Consuming Dry Nuts

Research highlights the value of regular consumption of a variety of nuts associated with a lower risk of heart disease

The study examines the peanuts, the nuts, the nuts and the peanut butter and finds that the benefits vary by type.

Protecting My Heart by Regularly Consuming Dry Nuts

The article reports that a new research article published in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology states that people who frequently consume nuts have a lower risk of developing cardiovascular disease. The study observed a correlation between nut consumption and a reduction in blood pressure, cholesterol levels and diabetic pressure. In addition, nuts are rich in antioxidants, proteins, and mineral nutrients, which may improve heart health and reduce the risk of developing cardiovascular disease.

People who regularly eat nuts, including peanuts, walnuts and tree nuts, have a lower risk of developing cardiovascular disease or coronary heart disease compared to people who never or almost never eat nuts, according to a study published today in Journal of the American College . Cardiology . The study is the largest to date to examine the frequency of nut consumption in relation to the development of cardiovascular disease.

Recently, dietary recommendations have shifted towards diets that include higher amounts of plant foods than animal foods, with most dietary patterns including nuts due to their association with reduced cardiovascular risk factors and unique dietary composition.

While many previous studies have focused on nut consumption as a whole, the researchers in this study also looked at the association between specific types of nuts - peanut butter, peanuts, tree nuts and tree nuts - with major cardiovascular events. Peanuts were included even though they are actually a legume because they have a similar fatty acid and nutrient profile to other nuts.

The study looked at over 210,000 people, including women from the study Nurses' Health Study and Nurses' Health Study II and men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, with follow-up up to 32 years. In all three groups, information on medical history, lifestyle and health conditions was collected through self-administered questionnaires every two years.

The primary endpoint of the study was major cardiovascular disease, defined as a combined endpoint of myocardial infarction, stroke or fatal cardiovascular disease. The secondary endpoints were total coronary artery disease, defined as fatal or non-fatal myocardial infarction and total stroke, which included all fatal and non-fatal strokes. The researchers recorded 14,136 cases of cardiovascular disease, including 8,390 cases of coronary heart disease and 5,910 cases of stroke.

The study found a consistent inverse relationship between total nut consumption and overall cardiovascular disease and coronary heart disease. Also, after controlling for individual nut consumption, eating nuts one or more times per week was associated with 19% lower risk of cardiovascular disease and 21% lower risk of coronary heart disease. Participants who ate peanuts or nuts two or more times per week had a 13 percent and 15 percent lower risk of cardiovascular disease, respectively, and a 15 percent and 23 percent, lower risk of coronary heart disease, respectively, compared with those who did not consume nuts.

Participants who consumed five or more servings of nuts per week had a 14 percent lower risk of cardiovascular disease and a 20 percent lower risk of coronary heart disease than participants who never or almost never consumed nuts. Results were similar when consumption of nuts, peanuts and tree nuts were accounted for individually. The researchers found no evidence of an association between total nut consumption and stroke risk, but peanut and walnut consumption was inversely associated with stroke risk. Peanut butter and nuts were not associated with stroke risk.

"Our findings support recommendations to increase the intake of a variety of nuts as part of healthy dietary patterns to reduce the risk of chronic disease in general populations," said Marta Guasch-Ferre, PhD, lead author of the study and research. fellow in the nutrition department at the Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health.

The study noted several limitations, including that the sample size was restricted to white health professionals. However, the researchers note that the results can be generalized to men and women of different ethnicities because there is no reason to expect the underlying mechanisms to be different. Also, because nut intake was self-reported, errors are unavoidable and there were no data on how the nuts were prepared, so it was not possible to control for the effect of preparation methods.

In an accompanying editorial commentary, the Emilio Ros, MD, PHD, of the Endocrinology and Nutrition Service at the Hospital Clínic in Barcelona and a researcher at CIBEROBN, a research network of the Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Spain, confirmed that the consistency of the findings suggests an association between nut consumption and protection from heart disease, but there is more to research.

"Ideally, further research should test the effects of long-term consumption of nuts supplemented in the usual diet on hard cardiometabolic events," Ros said. "In the meantime, raw nuts, if possible unhulled or otherwise unprocessed, can be considered as natural health capsules that can be easily incorporated into any heart-protective diet to further cardiovascular wellness and promote healthy ageing."

The American College of Cardiology is the professional home for the entire cardiovascular care team. The mission of the College and its more than 52,000 members is to transform cardiovascular care and improve heart health. The ACC leads the way in the development of health policy, standards and guidelines. The College operates national registries to measure and improve care, offers cardiovascular accreditation to hospitals and institutions, provides professional medical education, disseminates cardiovascular research, and grants credentials to cardiovascular specialists who meet rigorous qualifications. For more, visit acc.org.

The Journal of the American College of Cardiology is ranked among the world's leading cardiovascular journals for its scientific impact. The JACC is the flagship for a family of magazines - JACC: Cardiovascular Interventions , JACC: Cardiovascular Imaging , JACC: Heart Failure , JACC: Clinical Electrophysiology and JACC: Basic to Translational Science - which prides itself on publishing leading research into all critical aspects of cardiovascular disease. Learn more at JACC .org .

Source: https://www.acc.org/about-acc/press-releases/2017/11/13/14/08/eating-regular-variety-of-nuts-associated-with-lower-risk-of-heart-disease


The health inequalities in Europe Defend my health, claim my rights!

New online portal for resources and information on health inequalities

18 February, 2021
Banner Health Inequalities Portal

A new online portal for information and resources on health inequalities in Europe, health-inequalities.eu has been launched today by EuroHealthNet. It is a platform for international exchange including information, policies, research, and initiatives on health inequalities, for anyone who has a role in the COVID-19 recovery and building a more sustainable and fair future.

Political, economic, and practical choices that effect health inequalities are now being made. This portal is for public health professionals to exchange ideas and experiences, and for civil servants, educators, and people working on environment, social, and employment issues to find resources to help address inequalities in their fields.

Health inequalities are the systematic differences in health status between groups of people which are unfair and avoidable. The COVID-19 pandemic has uncovered these inequalities, and added weight and urgency to action to address them. Certain groups are at higher risk of COVID-19, such as people suffering from co-morbidities, families living in poorer circumstances, essential workers, people experiencing mental health issues. Many are affected by measures disproportionately. There is therefore an urgent need to understand and help repair these underlying vulnerabilities and include a focus on health equity in recovery policies.

The Portal's resource database provides nearly 600 examples of initiatives, policies, research, and publications at European levels and on the ground. It can serve as an aid for policy makers and practitioners to compare and learn from each other. Users are able to submit their own work that is in line with specific eligibility criteria in order to contribute to the growing knowledge base on how to invest in measures that address health inequalities.

The Health Inequalities Portal also includes the e-Guide for Financing Health Promoting Services including case studies, approaches and latest developments to inspire and inform users.

To interactive map allows users to compare the level of health inequalities within and between different countries in Europe, and find out more about national organisations working on health equityUsers can also discover the roles of the EU institutions in reducing health inequalities, and what action has already been taken in and by the EU.

"While EU budgets and national recovery plans are being planned and decided on, we need to stand ready with examples of how we can address health inequalities. With this Portal, EuroHealthNet aims to bring together new insights, resources, and information in one place and make it easier to reach. The Portal includes machine translation so to facilitate access in different languages. We hope that the Portal also helps to bridge public health and other sectors, which will improve action to reduce health inequalities and contribute to a better way out of the crisis and to a more sustainable and healthy Europe" said Caroline Costongs, EuroHealthNet Director.


The health inequalities in Europe.


New online portal for resources and information on health inequalities | EuroHealthNet

Protect my Health, Claim my Rights!


Reducing inequalities by investing in health-promoting care

  • The problem: Our care systems are not equipped to cope with the growing demand for care and offer unequal access to formal care.
  • Why Issues: Our current systems often exacerbate the inequalities faced by those who provide and those who need care, and may not be able to provide care to everyone who needs it in the future.
  • The road ahead: New models of care "health promotion" use resources more effectively by promoting the health and well-being of those who receive and provide care.

- Reviewing care to meet increasing demands, protect the wellbeing of providers and promote a welfare economy

People expect their governments to provide high quality and easily accessible care. However, There are differences in how care is organised and how care and service providers interact with each other across the EU. 

The demand for care is increasing due to, among other things, rising levels of chronic diseases and an ageing society. Our care systems may not have the financial means or human resources to provide it to all those who need it in the future 

What do we mean by 'care'?

We refer to 'care' as the full range of activities that enable people who need support to live as independently as possible and to participate actively in society. This care can be formal (professional) or informal (unpaid and/or without social protection).

Current approaches to care often maintain and exacerbate inequalities


Carers tend to be poorly paid and work in difficult conditions. When a relative needs care, they often have to leave a paid job to provide informal care (unpaid and/or without social protection).  

Those who provide care services tend to be women. The gender inequalities they face often intersect with other inequalities, such as those related to living in poverty or having an immigrant background or disability.  

Inequalities also exist in access to care. Vulnerable groups, such as those living in poverty, refugees and underserved minorities, often face more poor health conditions throughout their lives. In turn, they often require more care.

They also often face barriers when seeking formal care services. Subsequently, they may not speak the language or be unable to afford formal care. As a result, their loved ones often resort to informal care.


Models of care that promote health

Many new visions and models for care delivery could create more efficient use of resources. That is, this would improve the quality of life for those who receive and provide care, which helps to address the inequalities often perpetuated by care systems. 

The best the concept of health promotion, defined as 'the process that enables people to increase control and improve their health‘, is at the heart of such approaches.  

Caring as an investment for a Prosperous Economy

In the welfare economy model, investing in the determinants of health leads to greater prosperity and sustainable economic growth.

Health-promoting models of care can help reducing poverty, social exclusion and loneliness. By improving health and well-being, contributing to sustainable development, they prioritise well-being.  

These models allow informal carers, older people and those living with chronic illnesses or disabilities to become socially engaged and economically active, paving the way for a Prosperity Economy.  

How can EU policies, tools and programmes strengthen care?

A range of EU tools are available to help national and local governments invest in health-promoting care. These include 

  • The best European Care Strategy, which sets out EU-level measures to strengthen Member States' action on social care.  
  • THE EC Green Paper on ageing, which highlights the challenges and opportunities of demographic ageing. 

Roads to progress:

To make our care systems more health-promoting, we recommend the following:

  • To improve indicators around care that will help monitor performance and support progress. 
  • Explore how health promotion services can be integrated into current models of care.
  • Exchange "best practices" to strengthen cooperation between the health, social, education and training sectors.
  • Explore how digital technologies can support integrated care models and benefit and optimise users' independence.

All things considered, the implementation of health promotion care must ensure that individuals have the skills to provide and adopt such approaches. EU funds can help develop such skills and strengthen health-promoting care.

Protect my Health, Claim my Rights!

Hippocratic Oath - Hippocratic Oath

The Hippocratic Oath


Omnium Apollo itron, and Asclepius, and Health, and Panacea, and all the gods, and all the gods, and all the gods, and the history maker, and the performer of the power and the judgment, and the one orc and the xylographer of the orc.

To lead him that hath been taught in this craft is both to make a generation, and a life together, and to make a tradition of the use of it, and a generation of the brethren out of the house is both to criticize the brethren, and to teach this craft, which they use to learn, without pay and without copy, and without commission, and without the use of any other form of learning, to be taught by adoption, and by the same, and by the same of those that have been taught us, and to be taught by the disciples, and by those that are sworn by the law, and by those that are sworn by the law, and by none else.

I will use my judgment for the good of them that are in strength and judgment, and for the good of the unrighteous and the unrighteous.

And I will give no medicine to any one that asketh thee a deadly thing, neither will I give a medicine to any one that asketh thee a deadly thing. Neither shall I give any woman a psalter of phthisis. But I will keep my life pure and perfect, and my art pure and perfect.

And I shall not be a stoner, but I shall give up my work, and I shall give up my labor to you.

And if I be in your house, I will go about for the benefit of those who are in need, besides all unrighteous lust and corruption, and all other unrighteous works upon the bodies of women and men, both free and bond.

But if I see or hear in healing, or if I hear, or if without healing, according to the experience of men, and never use to speak outwardly, I am silent, these things are sufficient.

Oaths to me to be a maker of all things, and not to be beaten, and to be praised, both of life and of art, glorified by all men for ever. And by transgressing and being overthrown, he shall not be able to do so.


Hippocratic Oath


The memory of Apollo, and of Thee, and of The Panacean, and of God always and of all things, a poet, a poet in his power and judgment.

You have taught me with this art that you have been born in the same way, and you have a life of communion, and you need to be transmitted, and the gender of your brothers and sisters, as long as they are criticized. and teach these arts, if they use manthane, without wages and writings, ordering them and croesus, and the rest of the students who have been taught to them, and who have taught them, and a disciple who is written and sworn to act as a doctor, but not at all.

Arbitration is to be used for the benefit of those who have done so in a way that is possible and judged by me, if it declares that it is not right to do so.

I give no medicine that is not deadly, and I do not give it to you. But I don't give a woman a pessary of fluorine. I do not know and preserve my life and the art of the month.

The temeo is not a stone, but I give up my work as a prey to the stench.

As a result of the fact that I have not been able to do so, I have come to the benefit of the poor, except for the benefit of all the righteousness of the hearing and the fluorescence, the other and the aphrodites of the bodies of women, and of men, of free bodies, and of men.

If I do not heal, I hear, I hear, and I do not heal in the life of human beings, I will never be able to cry out, I am silent,

I am a man who has not been able to do so, and who has not been able to do anything about it, and who has been glorified for life and art in the presence of human beings for a long time. violating and violating the opposite of the same.

EU Recommendation Directive to support exit strategies from the sars-cov- 2 coronavirus crisis through the use of mobile applications

EU recommendation to support exit strategies from the d,sars-cov-2 coronavirus crisis through the use of mobile applications


EU Recommendation Directive

ippokraEU recommendation to support exit strategies from the sars-cov-2 coronavirus crisis through the use of mobile applications

EU Member States, supported by the Commission, have developed a toolbox for the use of mobile applications for contact tracing and alerting in response to the new coronavirus pandemic. It is part of a joint coordinated approach to support the phasing out of containment measures as set out in a Commission Recommendation of 8 April 2020.

Since the outbreak of the coronavirus pandemic, Member States, with the support of the Commission, have been assessing the effectiveness, security, privacy and data protection aspects of digital solutions to the crisis. Contact tracing applications, if fully compliant with EU rules and well coordinated, can play a key role in all phases of crisis management, especially when the time is ripe for the gradual removal of social distance measures. They can complement existing manual contact tracing and help to break the chain of transmission. The toolkit is accompanied by guidance on data protection for such mobile applications.

Welcoming the toolbox, Internal Market Commissioner Thierry Breton said: "Communicating detection applications to limit the spread of coronavirus can be useful, especially as part of Member States' exit strategies. However, strong privacy safeguards are a prerequisite for the adoption of these applications and therefore their usefulness. While we must be innovative and make the best use of technology to fight the pandemic, we will not compromise our values and privacy requirements. "

Commissioner for Health and Food Safety, Stella Kyriakides added: "Digital tools will be vital to protect our citizens as we phase out restriction measures. Mobile apps can alert us to infection risks and support health authorities with contact tracing, which is essential to break the chain of transmission. We need to be diligent, creative and flexible in our approaches to reopen our societies. We must continue to flatten the curve - and keep it low. Without secure and compliant digital technologies, our approach will not be effective."

The EU Common Toolkit, urgently and collaboratively developed by the e-Health Network with the support of the European Commission, provides a practical guide for Member States in developing and operating contact tracing and alerting applications. The toolkit sets out the basic requirements for these applications:

  • They should fully comply with EU privacy rules, as proposed by the directives presented today following consultation with the European Data Protection Board.
  • They must be implemented in close coordination and with the approval of the public health authorities.
  • They should be installed voluntarily and withdrawn as soon as they are no longer needed.
  • They should aim to exploit the latest technological solutions that enhance privacy. Likely to be based on Bluetooth proximity technology, not allowing tracking of individuals' locations.
  • They should be based on anonymised data, able to alert people who are in close proximity for a certain duration to an infected person so that they can be tested or isolated, without revealing the identity of the infected persons.
  • They must be interoperable across the EU so that citizens are protected even when crossing borders.
  • They should follow accepted epidemiological guidelines and reflect best practices for cybersecurity and accessibility.
  • They must be safe and effective.

Alongside the new applications, manual detection by traditional means based on interviews with infected patients will continue to cover citizens who are more vulnerable to infection but less likely to have a smartphone, such as the elderly or people with disabilities.

A common approach for other functions, in particular on monitoring information and symptoms, may be developed in future versions of the toolkit.

Next steps:

The toolkit reflects the latest best practices in the use of mobile contact tracing and alerting applications for crisis response. It is part of an ongoing process where Member States are working together to devise and improve the use of this and other practical tools in the coming weeks and months. This first version will be further enriched in the light of Member States' experiences.

By 30 April 2020, public health authorities will evaluate the effectiveness of the applications at national and cross-border level. Member States should report on their actions by 31 May 2020 and make the measures available to other Member States and the Commission for peer review. The Commission will assess the progress made and publish periodic reports from June 2020 and throughout the crisis, proposing action or phasing out measures that no longer seem necessary.


For more information:


eHealth, mHealth, Telemedicine & eHealth services

Η eHealth offers a way to communicate and better connect people and health professionals. Such eHealth solutions have the power to revolutionise traditional medicine through patient-centred and data-driven healthcare. More and more countries are now aiming to transform healthcare to a digital approach.

Η eHealth is the most prolific use of digital technology, the internet, healthcare administrative and clinical processes and social media. With the use of eHealth technology, an individual's health records are automated and multiple devices such as smartphones, netbooks, laptops and personal digital assistants are connected in a healthcare setting. In recent years, it has evolved far beyond the simple concept of health IT.

With detailed information about a patient's illness, doctors could create a reliable medical history. By using eHealth and digitizing personal health information, better medical records can be developed. In addition, electronic records can be easily shared with other doctors. Patients are equipped with their goals The eHealth industry targets electronic records and offers eHealth industry targets the opportunity to make appointments with doctors. The benefits of eHealth care are limitless and all converge to improve chronic health management.

Many countries have developed and effectively harnessed the benefits of eHealth. Every citizen has a personal website where users can log in confidentially and monitor their treatment and diagnoses. In addition, users can make appointments with their doctors, monitor their medication and order medicines from pharmacies. Some of the eHealth solutions are widely used around the world:

The Electronic Health Record (EHR) systems brings together patients' health records in digital format to make the information available to both patients and doctors whenever and wherever they want.

Telemedicine: This eHealth solution offers patients medical care 24×7 by remote doctors via video, phone calls or robotic technologies. Telemedicine helps overcome barriers in ICU and home care facilities and offers a proper expert opinion.

Remote monitoring: This technology has allowed doctors and other healthcare professionals to monitor their patient's vital signs, scores remotely. In addition, it offers closer medical monitoring of patients struggling with chronic diseases.
mHealth: mobile health offers informative health recommendations via smartphone and computer or tablet use. Such mobile apps help patients monitor their health and inform hospitals in case of emergencies.
While eHealth offers new opportunities to improve health management, there are some challenges to adopting the technology. Insufficient resources to support and develop the electronic system that supports eHealth is one of the biggest challenges around the world. Inadequate infrastructure, lack of awareness of the benefits of eHealth among patients, and lack of reliable, fast Internet connectivity limit leveraging the full benefits of eHealth.

The only key to all these challenges is to treat eHealth as one of the key parts of health planning and educating both doctors and patients on how to use eHealth systems.

In the future, eHealth will become a key tool for national health systems and will facilitate the daily lives of doctors and patients. The use of electronic health records and e-prescribing has already increased and will continue to increase in the future. These systems rely on interoperable digital systems to enable the exchange of health functions and in the future, such information will cross borders to improve healthcare management. This will allow US citizens who have travelled to India on vacation to obtain all healthcare documents and drug prescriptions at the Indian pharmacy. In addition, this will also benefit the medical tourism industry.

The use of artificial intelligence and robotics will increase in the future. Although fully autonomous robots that work on humans are still a distant future, the use of robotics components to assist healthcare professionals has already increased. For example, doctors are using robotic arms to treat patients, providing additional support for movement and limb manipulation.

The goal of the eHealth industry is to make healthcare facilities more accessible to patients, regardless of their location and time. In the future, digital health technologies will focus on bringing healthcare services closer to patients. For example, currently, in hospitals, emergency rooms are allocated according to the health of the patient and the urgency of their care. Using eHealth, patients could provide their symptoms through an app that can be digitally assessed and the patient could be given different levels of priority. On the other hand, instead of traveling a few miles just to see doctors to ask a few questions, patients can use digital in-home and take advantage of telemedicine technology to interact with doctors and receive e-prescribing at home.

The technology mHealth can monitor the user's vital signs and monitor abnormalities. In this way, users can get a doctor's opinion before their diseases progress. This will help improve diagnoses and minimize the mortality rate due to medical negligence. The Covid-19 pandemic has already proved conducive for the adoption of eHealth technology as the majority of clinics were operating at low capacity and major surgeries and procedures were postponed. During the pandemic, doctors and patients used mHealth apps to stay in touch with doctors and take better care of their health. However, all of these technologies rely on interoperability and strong Internet connectivity. Thus, in the future, Internet penetration will increase to minimize the distance between doctors and patients.

SOURCE: Path To The Bright Future Of eHealth Filled With Opportunities And Challenges




Informative Blog with news and articles about health, wellness, beauty, prevention, sports, rehabilitation and better quality of life!

Informative Blog with news and articles about health, wellness, beauty, prevention, sports, rehabilitation and the best quality of life!

Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy: Uses, Benefits, Side Effects

The benefits of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) have been observed since the 1930s. During that time, the US military used it to treat decompression sickness, a condition caused by diving in deep water. Since then, hyperbaric chambers have been approved to treat 13 conditions, and doctors are working to add more to the list.

Key Points:

  • Hyperbaric oxygen therapy can complement and encourage faster healing in many conditions, such as abscesses, autism, depression, bone infections, stroke, concussion, anoxic brain injuries and others.
  • HBOT may also be effective in reducing the physical signs of aging by increasing collagen production and telomere length.
  • A typical HBOT session will last from 3 minutes to 2 hours depending on the severity of your condition.
  • The treatment can be repeated daily for up to 4-6 weeks for best results.
  • Consult your doctor to see if you could benefit from hyperbaric oxygen therapy and to learn more about your treatment options.

Ongoing research on HBOT has shown promising results in many other settings. There are currently 216 clinical trials that are ongoing or have been completed on the efficacy of HBOT for various health conditions. In this article, you will learn about the benefits of hyperbaric oxygen therapy and what conditions it is used to treat.

What is hyperbaric oxygen therapy?

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy offers benefits for many conditions providing the body with extra oxygen at elevated pressure levels . It is particularly useful since everything in our body relies on oxygen to function properly.

The air we breathe consists of only 21% oxygen, the other 78% is nitrogen. In a hyperbaric chamber, the oxygen levels increase in 100% . To enhance the therapeutic benefits of pure oxygen, hyperbaric chambers they also increase the air pressure in your body by 2-3 times the normal levels .

HBOT treatments can last from 3 minutes to 2 hours, not counting the time needed to equalize the pressure in the chamber. For most conditions, it will need to do between 20-30 treatments over 4-6 weeks .

Benefits of hyperbaric oxygen therapy

As more research is done, doctors are beginning to use HBOT to treat an increasing number of conditions. Some studies have shown that hyperbaric oxygen therapy used for cancer can inhibit cancer growth and can make chemotherapy and radiation treatments more effective .

Current studies on the use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy for treatments of autism, depression and PTSD have also shown promise. The benefits of hyperbaric oxygen therapy are also useful for these conditions:

  • Air or gas splashes
  • Bone infections
  • Brain abscesses
  • Burns
  • Carbon monoxide poisoning
  • Diabetic wounds
  • Decompression sickness
  • Flesh-eating bacteria
  • Gangraina
  • Radiation injuries
  • Severe anaemia
  • Severe inflammation
  • Skin graft
  • Sudden deafness
  • Traumatic brain injury

The healing of wounds

One of the most common uses of hyperbaric oxygen therapy is for treating wounds that are resistant to other methods of care . These injuries include radiation injuries, diabetic injuries (especially diabetic foot injuries), traumatic surgical wounds, abscesses, bone infections, gangrene and injuries caused by flesh-eating bacteria.

Most of these injuries affect the body's immune system, which inhibits the body's ability to fight infection. HBOT acts by infusing your body's white and red blood cells with oxygen, which helps stimulate their action . This helps to start the healing process.

Increased blood flow and circulation

Other benefits of hyperbaric oxygen therapy include that it can help increase blood flow and circulation by diffusing excess oxygen into the plasma. Although the process constricts blood vessels in the body, it makes the blood cells themselves significantly more efficient.

Because the plasma and blood cells in the body are hyper-oxygenated, they can carry oxygen through the circulatory system much more efficiently . This has also been shown to have a positive effect on the central nervous system and provides the brain with more oxygen than it would otherwise receive.

Reduced pain and swelling

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy has been used to help patients recover from strokes, concussion and anoxic brain injuries . Patients showed significant improvement in cognitive function, verbal skills and memory recall after HBOT.

The treatment works increasing oxygen circulation and capillary growth in damaged areas of the brain . This allows the body to heal damaged blood vessels and tissues and may be able to reduce cell necrosis after a stroke.

Improved hair growth

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy benefits hair growth after hair transplantation or hair restoration procedures . The treatment helps to improve oxygenation in the blood vessels which helps to improve collagen production.

In turn, this promotes hair follicle growth in addition to reducing the appearance of scars, blemishes and bruising that may occur as a result of surgery. In patients with alopecia, studies have shown that HBOT can significantly reduce itching and bursitis .

Treatment of depression

Almost 280 million people worldwide experience depression , accounting for 3.8% of the population. Recently, hyperbaric oxygen therapy has been used for symptoms of depression and is thought to have an impact on neurotransmitters.

In addition, when combined with SSRIs, hyperbaric oxygen therapy may help to stimulating serotonin production by repairing damaged neurons in the brain . This is done by increasing the flow of oxygen to the affected areas which can help activate stem cell function.

Anti-aging effects

A recent study on the effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy and ageing revealed that hyperbaric oxygen therapy benefits skin health . The study found that there were skin benefits that included increase in collagen density, elastic fibre density and the number of blood vessels after 1-2 weeks of HBOT.

A separate study showed a 20% increase in telomere length after 30 sessions of HBOT, which strongly suggests the potential for anti-ageing benefits. Although more research needs to be done to determine the extent of these benefits, the science behind them is promising.

Possible side effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy

When treated in a controlled and approved treatment centre, the side effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy are rare and usually mild . Complications become more common if the treatment lasts longer than 2 hours or if the internal chamber pressure is three times higher than the external pressure.

Typical side effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy include temporary changes in vision that may cause myopia, fatigue, dizziness, ear popping and pain in the sinuses. Rarely, more serious complications may occur due to the intense pressure in the chamber that can cause lung damage, rupture of the eardrum or oxygen poisoning.

Depending on the reason for treatment, most patients will be able to resume normal activities after HBOT. For some, hyperbaric oxygen therapy may cause ear problems for a short period of time.

Contraindications to treatment with hyperbaric oxygen

Although most patients tolerate HBOT and benefit from the treatment, certain conditions may make HBOT more dangerous . If you have any of the following conditions, be sure to consult your physician before treatment.

  • Pneumothorax
  • COPD
  • Bronchial Asthma
  • High fever
  • Epilepsy
  • Sinus or ear problems that prevent equalization of pressure in the chamber
  • Pregnancy
  • Claustrophobia
  • History of ophthalmic surgery
  • History of thoracic surgery
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Implanted devices such as defibrillators, epidural pain pumps, etc.

The contraindications listed above are not absolute, with the exception of pneumothorax due to increased pressure on the lungs. Many of these conditions will assessed on a case-by-case basis to determine the risk of the treatment versus the benefit of the treatment.

Final thoughts

Although hyperbaric oxygen therapy is not suitable for everyone, it can be beneficial for certain conditions. It is important to you are completely honest with your doctor about your medical history and inform him/her of any changes in your health on the day of the operation.

As HBOT continues to become a more widely accepted method of treatment for more common health conditions, your doctor may advise you to try it. Research continues to prove HBOT's effectiveness, although there are still dozens of studies underway.

Weigh the benefits and risks of treatment with your provider and be sure to research the treatment centre you choose before treatment.


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